mugen_edamame: (Default)
 2 points u need to think about today

母国語 is not the same as  民族

大衆  the masses

panem et circenses
bread and circus

if you feed them and entertain the 大衆, you can get away with anything

aka 大衆 are like pigs, feed them keep 'em happy and they'll let you drag them to slaughter

free to play games
u the bread or the circus friend??

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 Climate Change, how to deal with it
First, gotta figure out that there is a problem (diagnose it, identifying the problem)

Science helps out with shit like that, Science detects shit like this but people have got to be the ones to fix it for themselves

急acceleration in urban population from about 1950 yea, reciprocally seen in real gdp abrupt acceleration.
also accelerating includes:
number of large dams
water consumption
paper production (data starts fr about 60s or 70s)
ocean acidification
level of coastal nitrogen

why, and what are the results

Charcteristics are
non-linear, abrupt, and irreversible changes probably

mugen_edamame: (Default)
 代謝divided into 2
異化 catabolism   energy you get from breaking down food and shit
同化 anabolism energy used up to make shit like cells and shit 

eg plant takes in water carbon dioxide etc to grow is 同化

plant releasing CO2 and 02 from respiration and chlorophyll shit is 異化

body made from cells yeahhahhahh


転写 transcription
翻訳 translation

consumes energy to make RNA, to make Protein (which needs energy and bits 酵素 enzyme)
energy taken from food, and stored in easy to use ATP form

enzymes catalyse breaking down of shit, and chain of stuff happening is called METABOLIC PATHWAY

aside from atp u also can get energy in forms of gtp, fadhs nadh2 and nadph2

but atp is most commonly used

y do we need energy buddiezz

biggest producer of AtP (was it?)

many different pathways for ATP w varying levels of efficacy
but some are anaerobic, which is their selling point 解糖系 glycolysis

有酸素運動 aerobic activity
good for health because it burns 脂質
anaerobic (sudden and intense) does not draw from fat
無酸素運動 can help you through about 400 meters before it goes fuck off to hell m8 i need a break

glucose gets converted to energy better than pocari
fructose is harder to convert to energy 取り出しにくい
and fructose 蓄積 more easily stored than burned, can instead make you gain weight, accumulates in oily form a lot

shit that matters for ATP production
and cytosol


発エルゴン反応is 異化反応
An exergonic process is one in which there is a positive flow of energy from the system to the surroundings. 
酵素helps process go through (activation energy 活性化エネルギー)

means "absorbing energy in the form of work." Endergonic reactions are not spontaneous

coupled reaction

adenosine triphosphate

breaking down of atp to adp releases useable energy

in glycolysis, glucose is converted to glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate and then to pyruvate, nett gain of 2 ATP, is anaerobic


lipids as they are cant be broken down for energy
so coA breaks them down so that they can be catalysed


mugen_edamame: (Default)
Review of last week

It's cool you're cool we can get through this BELIEVE IN YOURSELF

change accessibility to files
go to Terminal
make sure you're in the right place

% pwd    whr m i right now m8
% cd ..  ease up 2 spaces
% cd public_html go in here
% chmod 711 w3c.jpeg   this is my command

fucking deg rad

count coutn
mugen_edamame: (Default)
 What is sustainability?
Landslide in Hiroshima in August, 2014
-heavy rain (unusually so, patterns that has been cropping up around Japan lately) likely due to climate change

Philippine November 2013
Typhoon Haiyan wrecked the shit outta Philippines 

New York October 2012
Hurricane Sandy, wrecked it Hard
First time something of this caliber came a-calling

Caused by Global Environmental Change (not limited to just climate change)

Why are scientists reluctant to blame shit on climate change?
We aren't 100% sure that shit is 100% blame-able on climate change. Climate change main cause is burning of fossil fuels, and the exhaust that causes the problems (greenhouse gases) it takes a while to accumulate in the atmosphere, takes a while longer to show effects. 

Effects are many, different, and dependent on locations. It's hard to point to a disaster and say for sure, FOR SURE, the problem is climate change. It likely does have a causal link, but they may well have causal links with lots of shit.

That said, while we might yet be beyond 100% proving it, shit, son, we know.

Look, child, upon
Correlation between increased emissions thanks to human activities with many things, such as concentration of CO2, CH6, atmospheric ozone depletion, etc

Emission (activity) shot up in the 1900s, and similar tendencies in these other graphs.


Lover let us move on to 


We got 9, and they are
Chemical pollution
Climate CHange
Ocean Acidification
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
Nitrogen Cycle/Phosphorus Cycle
Global Freshwater Use
Change in land us
Biodiversity loss
Atmospheric aerosol loading

They all need to be kept below a certain level, and going over the level may cause IRREVERSIBLE changes to the Earth System. We've overdone it on

Climate CHange
Nitrogen Cycle 
and Biodiversity loss


Influences (Changes in Social Systems)

Legitimacy of Making Decisions is changing. Line between developing and developed countries changing. Skew of power shifting, and there's soft power now too (culture, seductiveness of ploy, things that make you go along w it. Starbucks = fancy, cool, the more people think it, the more power it gets). 

Attractiveness is a literal power source for soft powers.

But hard powers are changing too.

Not all in the hands of Nation States ala the UN any more. NGOs are becoming power players, same goes for large corporations that have more economic power than literal countries. Diversification of power.


Sustainability in the face of natural disasters.


idk no one knows but we sure gotta figure it out, chiquitita. 

Nuclear power plants. Are they sustainable? Waste is a problem, but it helps tackle climate change. ??? If it isn't sustainable, reasonable alternatives would be??? That's the shit you gotta figure out, lovely.


Common But Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR)
We all got common goal, but what we need to get there differs from country to country
When this was created in 1990s, it divided places into developed and developing
There was no mobility built into the system; once you're in your category, you can't easily move out

BRICs gained power in 2001-2010 Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa

2007 Economic crisis spread fast and quick because globalisation (seemed like such a good ideaaaaa)

Arab Spring




Narrowing gap between ??? key to sustainability.

Nature/Earth System                 <- too small and frail to be able to cover the other 2, when it should be biggest it is now smallest

Economic System                     <- bigger and bigger cos somebody's got to make moneyzzzz. It's smaller than Society but bigger than Earth, should be smallest

Society/Governance system   <- size growing af because of growing population, is now the biggest system, when it should be smaller than Earth but larger than Economy

This is all in theory o' course, but life ain't so smooth. So the question is, how do we structure Economy and Social systems so that they fit in under Earth system and don't hella exceed it. 

mugen_edamame: (Default)
 sports science is important for sportsmen but also for the general quality of life for regular people

voluntary command is at the behest of the brain's request, motor command runs down the motor neurons in the spine and leads to muscle contraction
-muscle contraction folds limbs etc
every action, equal reaction in opposite direction
reading the reaction tells you the manner of the movement you outputted

mugen_edamame: (Default)
CNS home directory
go to public html

jesus wept


<!DOCTYPE html>
    <meta charset="utf-8">
    <script src="trytry.js"></script>
<h1> my name is ayu nice to meet you</h1>

<input type="button" value="OK" onclick="sfc()">

<p id="demo"> GIGA </p>
<input type="button" value="OK" onclick="sfc2()">


<input type="button" value="OK" onclick="sfc3()">


function sfc(){

    alert("hello friend");

function sfc2(){

function sfc3(){
    document.getElementById('demo').innerHTML ="SFC"

copy the image so that you can acces it on your webpage, e.g<your CNS>/w3c.jpeg
submit the URL
create a webpage that display your name
submit the URL
page with 3 buttons:
butt1: window alert “Hi mate”
butt2 : display “GIGA” (erase SFC)
butt3: display “SFC” (erase GIGA)
submit the URL
observe/debug those links using Chrome:View-Developer-JavaScript Console
write your comment/analysis here
do exercise 6-2 point 3
submit the URL

lord wept (n help us all)
mugen_edamame: (Default)
To help students identify the role gender plays in the marketing of products, and teach them that the gender roles and expectations imposed on them by mass media should not stop them from expressing their individuality.


Session will last one school period (about 50 minutes).
Participants will  be students in the first year of middle school, currently attending Keio SFC middle school. 
Number of participants will be one classroom of students (about 30 students).

The aim is to get the students to understand that the marketing of goods (in the case of this study, clothes) tend to be gender-specific and highly-targeted. To illustrate this point, we intend to divide the students into groups of 5, preferably with a mix of genders, and get them to make a collage using materials we provide, such as fashion magazines, large sheets of paper, glue, scissors, and marker pens.

The collage should contain what the students think are typical clothes for each gender as seen in magazines. Students will be given 20 minutes for this project. 

At the end of the 20 minutes, we will have an open discussion regarding the message readers get regarding gender roles and expectations from reading the magazines. Sample discussion questions would include

Do the children see a trend or inclination for certain 'looks' for certain genders? (For example, 'cute', 'gothic', 'macho' etc.) What do these themes try to convey, and is knowing the meaning behind them important?

What would the children feel about a girl dressing like the male model, and a boy dressing like the female model? Do they think that is acceptable? Why, or why not?

Through this discussion and hearing the opinions of the children, we hope to make it clear that what they see in the fashion magazines are just a story about gender roles, and it is not a story that they should feel pressured to listen to and follow. By the end of the session, we hope that the children feel more confident in dressing according to their individual preference, rather than purposely dressing to suit their gender for fear of being 'different'.

We hope to measure the effectiveness of our exercise by getting the children to fill in the following questionnaire, which we will then analyse and compile the data to see if this method of education is effective for this topic at this age. 

Let’s Go Shopping Questionnaire
Your Name: ______________________________________________________________
Review the assigned catalog and answer the questions on this sheet. Be specific and offer examples as much as
possible which could include pictures from the catalog. Reminder: You need to complete one questionnaire for
each company assigned.
1. Name of Company: _____________________________________________________________________________
2. What products do they sell? ______________________________________________________________________
3. What colors, patterns and designs were most often used for the boys’ products? ___________________________
4. What colors, patterns and designs were most often used for the girls’ products? ___________________________
5. In looking at the models used to show the clothing or other products, describe any differences in how boys
and girls are shown or portrayed. (For example, what are they doing, how are they standing or sitting, facial
expressions, etc.)
6. What did you notice in terms of the physical appearance of the girls and boys models used? (For example,
racial, ethnic or other cultural diversity, hair length and/or styles, color of hair and eyes, etc.)
7. Any other observations?

mugen_edamame: (Default)
emotionally charged questions will tell u more than just randomly asking someone whether they accept things or not yeah yeah yeah

what is bullying to you
have you ever been bullied
in what way
what impact did it have
did you speak out
why, why not
what role do you think compulsory education plays in preventing bullying (of lgbt)
what can we do to improve the situation

what is bullying to you
have you ever witnessed bullying
did you try to intercept
why, why not
did you speak out
why, why not

mugen_edamame: (Default)
 14 Energy generation in in mitochondria and chloroplasts

Link between bond-forming reactions and membrane transport processes in mitochondria is called CHEMIOSMOTIC COUPLING.

In a battery, chemicals generate -vely charged ions at one pole and can keep up continuous transfer of electrons along metal that connects it to the opposite pole. Energy released by the movement of electrons can be used to power motors. Much the same, the transfer of electrons that occurs between protein complexes in the electron transport chain does work when it drives protons to one side of the membrane and the resulting proton gradient drives generation of ATP (chemical energy)

Single glucose can make 30 molecules of ATP

Why does the citric acid stop almost immediately when 02 cut off? 
Several steps in the cycle require oxidised forms NAD+ FAD. W/out oxygen these electron carriers can be reduced by reactions in the citric cycle but cannot be reoxidised by the electron transport chain that participates in oxidative phosphorylation. 

TRUE. No. and location of mitochondria w/in cell can change depending both on cell and the amount of energy required

FALSE. Porins are in outer mitochondrial membrane, NOT INNER. 

FALSE. inner membrane is a single membrane, the cristae NOT DISCRETE COMPARTMENTS

TRUE. Intermembrane space of mitochondria is chemically equivalent to cytosol with respect to pH and the small molecules

Mitochondrial genome in MATRIX
Citric acid cycle enzymes are in MATRIX
Proteins of electron transport chain are in the INNER MEMBRANE
ATP synthase is in INNER MEMBRANE
Transport protein for pyruvat

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Oxidative phosphorylation goes down in INNER MEMBRANE OF MITOCHONDRIA. 
Requires electron transport chain, where electrons are taken from carrier molecules NADH and FADH2 that come from glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. 
Electron transfer is used to generate gradient of PROTONS, or H+.
Because proton conc. is much HIGHER outside the mitochondria than inside it, the flow of PROTONS, H+ down the gradient is very FAVOURABLE and can be couple to production of ATP from ADP. 
Oxidative phosphorylation refers to OXIDATION of NADH and FADH2, and PHOSPHORYLATION of ADP
Without this process, yield of ATP from glucose would be SEVERELY decreased.

Shit comes out the citric acid cycle in this order

Which carbon is lost as CO2 and which is converted to carbonyl carbon?

CoA provides the sulfhydryl group necessary to form the thiodester bond during the citric acid cycle.

What is the energy of the of the thioester bond formed in step 4 harnessed for?!

in final step of citric acid cycle, oxaloacetate is regenerated through oxidation of malate coupled with production of

 the inhibitor was used during investigations to find out that citric cycle is cyclical and non-linear

And the inhibited enzyme is

and when the inhibitor was added, SUCCINATE built up in the pathway


mugen_edamame: (Default)
 13 (baby, baby, baby)

Glycolysis is ANAEROBIC, takes place in the cytosol, oxidation of glucose takes place, but NO MOLECULAR OXYGEN IS USED.

OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION generates THE MOST ATP (x28 ATP per glucose) glycolysis nets 2, starch to glucose nets nothing, citric acid cycle makes 1 GTP

advantage to GRADUAL OXIDATION of glucose during cellular respiration is that energy can be EXTRACTED in USABLE amounts.


NET!!!! number of activated carrier molecules at the end of GLYCOLYSIS is 2 ATP and 2 NADH
(NADH not converted to NAD+ here)


Enzyme that catalyzes cleaving of 6-sugar carbon into 3-sugar carbon in step 4 of glycolysis is called ALDOLASE

If you eat ONLY PROTEIN, EXCRETION OF MORE NITROGENOUS WASTES compared to regular diet. Amino acids can generate Acetyl CoA, so it can generate energy friend.

Takes place in Cytosol
Glycogen breakdown
Release of fatty acids from triacylglycerols

Takes place in Mitochondria matrix (open space in the middle)
Citric acid cycle
Conversion of pyruvate to activated acetyl groups
Oxidation of fatty acids to acetyl coA

Inner mitochondrial membrane
oxidative phosphorylation

lol we'll deal with this later


phosphoglucose isomerase catalyzes glucose 6 phosphate to fructose 6 phosphate  (isonerases DO NOT add phosphate groups, kinase do)

HEXOKINASE phosphorylates glucose to glucose 6 phosphate serves the purpose of DRIVING the UPTAKE of GLUCOSE INTO the cell

in SUBSTRATE-LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION the enzyme-catalysed oxidation of substrate releases energy that generates ATP DIRECTLY.

ANAEROBICALLY GROWING YEAST relies EXCLUSIVELY on glycolysis to supply them with ATP.

In ANAEROBIC conditions, skeletal muscles ONLY PRODUCE LACTATE

Anaerobically growing yeast metabolizes pyruvate to ethanol and CO2 via fermentation.
Another important reaction during this process is

Essential for growth of this anaerobic cell because it is THE ONLY means of REGENERATING NAD+ that is required for glycolysis, the main energy-generating pathway in an anaerobic cell

Free energy for oxidation of aldehyde group on glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to form a carboxylic acid is more negative than the free energy for ATP hydrolysis (oxidation of glyc 3 phosphate is energetically favourable and drives synthesis of ATP from ADP

enzyme glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase w Serine side chain instead  of cysteine WOULD OXIDIZE SUBSTRATE BUT NOT RELEASE IT

Final product for fermentation in yeast is ethanol and CO2
Ethanol is C2H60, 
H2 C - OH

Pyruvate moves from cytosol to mitochondria, where it's oxidised to acetyl coA and CO2 by pyruvate dehydrogenase complex what has 3 enzymes, 60 polypeptides

Fermentation in mammalian cells result in LACTATE which has 2 Hs more than pyruvate

In oxidation of pyruvates, what are the advantages of 3 enzymes in one complex instead of independent enzymes???
Substrates are already bound and properly positioned for rapid enzyme catalysis, and free energy released by one reaction can be easily used for another.

Reaction sequence for glycolysis is linear, it's cyclical for citric acid cycle. What are the resulting differences when an excess amount of one type of intermediate is added?
CITRIC ACID CYCLE occurs more RAPIDLY, and w addition of one intermediate LEVELS OF ALL INTERMEDIATES INCREASE. 

in GLYCOLYSIS, intermediates DOWNSTREAM of the excess intermediate will be affected

FALSE. Glycolysis DOES NOT result in CO2 and H2O, but in 2 pyruvate. CO2 n H20 are produced in citric acid cycle, friend.

FALSE. Cleavage of fructose 1, 6 biphosphate DOES NOT yield 2 x glyceraldeyhyde 3 phosphate, but instead in dihydroxyacetone phosphate and ONE gylceraldehyde 3 phosphate. 

TRUE. Anaerobic respiration isn't the same as fermentation, because it uses electron transport chain and fermentation does not.

FALSE. under anaerobic conditions, DO NOT continue glycolysis resulting in build up of pyruvate in cytosol, they CONVERT PYRUVATE TO LACTATE and the EXCRETE it.

TRUE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase catalyzes 3 different but linked enzymatic reactions.

TRUE. Amino acids CAN be transported into mitochondria and converted into acetyl coA.

OXALOACETIC acid cycle IS NOT a common name for citric acid cycle

 Citric acid cycle uses WATER to get the oxygen it uses to make the by-product CO2.

Fatty acid that has more carbons and is totally saturated (NO DOUBLE BONDS) will yield the most energy. The more carbons, the more acetyl coA that can be generated, and all carbons being saturated means that an FADH2 molecule WILL BE GENERATED IN THE FIRST STEP OF THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE.

mugen_edamame: (Default)
chapter two, 17

pump that pumps heavy metals into vacuole for sake of cell. u make fake vesicle include the pump, put Zn2+ and ATP around it, K+ into in, and then you find Zn 2+ gets pumped into the vesicle. 
then you vary the contents of the insides and outsides.
then you break the vesicles down, to find out the presence of turned on (phosphorylated) pumps
u take ones that are phosphorylated but don't have Zn outside, wash it out clean of ATP and then add Zn 2+
what do you think happens?

Small amount of Zn 2+ will move into the vesicle, no K+ will come out, protein pump becomes unphophorylated. pumps were activated previously w presence of Zn 2+ so Zn2+ gets stuck in, dephosphorylates the protein and gets spat out the other side, but absence of ATP means that the pump can't make the conformational change to take on the K+ and haul it out (assuming this works like Na+ K+ pump)


Antibodies that recognize the extracellular domain of Ca 2+ pump in animals blocks active transport of Ca2+ out of the cell. As a result, the intracellular contents of Ca 2+??
Ca 2+ pumps in the ER membrane keeps cytosolic Ca2+ conc. low. 

Na+-H+ exchanger is used to maintain pH in ANIMAL cells

Na+ K+ transporter keeps both Na+ and Cl- out of the cell by actively pumping out Na+ and keeping the outside so electropositive Cl- does not bother to enter.

Ca 2+ pumps in plasma membrane and ER are important because they prevent Ca 2+ from altering activity of molecules in the cytosol. (Ca 2+ is a very powerful signal molecule.

For uncharged molecule, direction of diffusion decided solely by concentration gradient
For charged molecule, it's conc. plus look at the membrane potential
Net driving force has 2 components for charged molecule, it's called the electrochemical gradient
Coupled transporters use movement of a molecule flowing down its gradient to power another going against its gradient
when transporter moves both ions in one direction it's called a symport
if it moves one in, one out, it's called a antiport

Movement of glucose into cell against conc. gradient can be powered w co-transport of Na+ into the cell.
movement of of Na+ ions from area o high concentration of low concentration is energetically FAVOURABLE, and increases entropy. As long as conc. in and out of the cell is significant, net entropy increase w d movement even though glucose going into area of higher glucose concentration results in loss of entropy

Testing rate of glucose transport into cell via Na+ glucose transporter.

In a vesicle, you have the pump put in right (glucose in, Na+ in) w glucose in vesicle and Na+ in the solution around it. You change conc. of the Na+ ions in the solution, and the rate of transport increases and then plateaus because the transporters reach a maximum capacity (become saturated) at which point maximum rate of transfer occurs, and rate will not increase regardless of addition of more Na+ ions outside.

If you also add leaky Na+ channels, the channels allow rapid equilibration of Na+ conc. in and out of the vesicle, destroying the gradient required for glucose transport, and so there will be no net movement of glucose regardless of how high the conc. of Na+solution.

Gated channels open more frequently in response to a given stimulus.

Patch-clamp recording sons. 

How do you set it up, and what does the 'clamp' refer to?

Requires removal of portion of cell membrane by sealing microelectrode to the cell membrane. Pull the sealed portion away, place in solution of controlled medium. Voltage applied to patch o membrane can be fixed ('clamped') while varying other parameters for study.

Spikes in readings can be go either way
depending on the direction of flow of current or manipulating the ion concentrations on either side, which can result in negative readings for current when channels open.

- Gap Junctions ARE NOT large pores that connect cytosol to the outside. They connect the cytosols of adjacent cells. They are v large, and if they open straight up to extracellular space the permeability of cell membrane will be too high, affecting its effectiveness and selectivity

- Charged molecules / Ions  CANNOT pass through aquaporins

- Selectivity of channel depends on THREE (NOT ONE) parameters. Diameter, shape and charge of ions.

- Most ion channels ARE gated, depend on presence of stimulus to open or close and aren't jammed open allowing unregulated flow of ions.

Gating mechanism of auditory hair cells is STRESS GATED

Acetyl-choline receptor in skeletal cells is ligand-gated ion channel

Stress-gated channels in hair cells of mammalian cochlea

responds to changes in membrane potential

Receptors for neurotransmitters are mostly ligand gated

Voltage-gated channels are either completely open or completely closed.

In a resting cell, K+ leak channels keep the electrochemical gradient of K+ at zero

Nernst equation pls remember  V = 62 × log(Co/Ci)
when co is 16 n ci is 106
V = 62 × log(15/106) 
V = 62 × –0.849 
V = –52.7 

a BAD assumption when using Nernst equation is that the plasma membrane is primarily permeable to Na+. Buddy's got K+ leak channels, so it would be way more permeable to K+!!!!

If Na+ channels open in a previously at rest cell, membrane potential will become more POSITIVE.

Dendrites come out of the cell body of nerve cells, nerve terminals are the ends on the other side of axon, the long liney bit

Neurotransmitters ARE small molecules released into the synaptic cleft after fusion of synaptic vesicles w presynaptic membrane (the neuron sending the message)

Action potentials ARE NOT mediated by Ca 2+ channels, usually mediated by voltage-gated Na+

Voltage-gated Na+ channels ARE inactivated automatically shortly after activation so that action potential can't move backwards.

Voltage-gated K+ channels ARE NOT immediately opened in response to local depolarisation, they open when the action potential is at its peak so they can't weaken it, and instead help restore membrane potential while Ca 2+ channels are inactivated.

Voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels that respond to action potential are required for secretion of neurotransmitters. Depolarisation of nerve terminal causes Ca 2+ channels to open, Ca 2\; floods in, causes synaptic vesicles to fuse to plasma membrane and secrete lotsa neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft

Threshold potential (-40mV) anything above me generates action potential

-60mV is resting membrane potential
spike of -40mv to 40mv is the action potential

between -60 to -40, the change from resting to threshold is the effect of the depolarising stimulus.

Action potential is wave of DEPOLARISATION.
Triggered when the membrane potential becomes LESS negative than resting membrane potential.
Propagated by the opening of VOLTAGE-GATED CHANNELS. 
During action potential, membrane potential changes from NEGATIVE to POSITIVE.
Travels along the AXON to nerve terminals.
Signals received at DENDRITES what are on the nerve bodies.

the ACETYLCHOLINE neurotransmitter is the one released in the synaptic junctions between neurons and skeletal muscles.

Inhibitory neurotransmitters (like glycine n gaba) work by acting as ligands to open the gate for Cl- so they rush in and neutralise the positive charge caused by influx of Na+ and kills the action potential in its tracks

Neurons communicate with each other through specialised sites called SYNAPSES.
Neurotransmitter receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that open transiently in POSTSYNAPTIC cell membrane in response to neurotransmitters released by PRESYNAPTIC cell. Ligand-gated ion channels convert CHEMICAL signals into ELECTRICAL signals. Neurotransmitter release stimulated by voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels in nerve terminal membrane.

Experiments on Squid Giant Axon

* In the cell you double the concentration of K+, plus Oac- that cannot go out that maintains the relative electrical balance within the cell. Does this make the membrane resting potential more negative or less?

MORE NEGATIVE. Increasing conc. of K+ in cell creates driving force for K+ to leave the cell, and the cell becomes more negative and the membrane potential becomes more negative.

* u double the amount of Na + outside another cell. How does this affect the action potential?

INCREASE HEIGHT of PEAK of action potential. Driving force to enter Na+ is higher than in usual circumstances, and when the Na+ channels open flux (rate) of Na+ ions moving into cells goes up.

* for yet another cell, u remove half of the Na+ natch present in that situation, and u add choline (v big cation that doesn't bother Na+ )

ACTION POTENTIAL HEIGHT will be LOWER than usual because halving the Na+ conc. reduces the driving force that pushes Na+ into the cell through the channels 

mugen_edamame: (Default)
 the definition of culture is what the majority of people agree on
no absolute truth, just the most popular one
learned behaviour
you get born clean and free of influences
but then language (eg what language is spoken around the kid), social standings (oh, so this is what a mother is meant to do), manner of thinking (getting the impression of god existing via tv or what, and confronting members of that society what is God and taking in the response), physical things (ie learning to use the chopsticks is learning culture via the use of an implement)
culture is ever-changing, a Hot Mess, and never pure and never wholly conserved throughout the members
culture ain't the only thing made up as people go along
also, language, and national image
"Imagined communities" is a concept coined by Benedict Anderson. An imagined community is different from an actual community because it is not (and, for practical reasons, cannot be) based on everyday face-to-face interaction between its members. For example, Anderson believes that a nation is a socially constructed community, imagined by the people who perceive themselves as part of that group

also, the good-natured ruthless murder of the Other, the Incorrect, that is like Malay stamping out orang asli languages because that's what it means to be a good Malaysian

判断保留 epoche, that is, please remember that different doesn't mean wrong, and same as always doesn't mean right

tolerance, that is, take it on the chin when you can manage it, Friend

a mother married to a japanese man w new kids brings her foreign kid to japan and treats him like unimportant dirt. as his teacher, buddy, what do you propose we do to help the little guy out?

house visit eh

折り合い  compromise

people's view on what sort of levels of good parenting can be expected from Foreign Parts (is this racist, a requiem)

holla at the israel dude for pointing out fucking common sense 子育てせずにギャンブルのが違います
holla at the girl in the back, go back to the family in your country if it comes to it

akita and their culture of foreign brides!!!
korea rather than you cleaning up and doing chores study hard hard hard and get into an excellent university, that will be our joy

mistaken interpretation of observations can have bigger impact ripples friend

as expected, raising kids is fucking fucking fucking hard. pachinko might not be an addiction, but just as a way to pass the time without bearing too much responsibility for it yeah

meet very different people, see how they think, so you have a an archive of the facets of humanity and it makes you less likely to bull-headedly say ass things to people

let us do our best friend
lady you are way way way excellent

mugen_edamame: (Default)

3. Cultural - sub-text and semiotic analysis of cultural "artifacts." (terminology, context, interpretation) homework: 

youtube:  (what does this cultural artifact tell us about the conceptualizations and desires of contemporary Japanese urban cultures?

Semiotics (also called semiotic studies and in the Saussurean tradition called semiology) is the study of meaning-making, the philosophical theory of signs and symbols. This includes the study of signs and sign processes (semiosis), indication, designation, likeness,analogymetaphorsymbolism, signification, and communication

  • Ferdinand de Saussure (1857–1913), the "father" of modern linguistics, proposed a dualistic notion of signs, relating the signifier as the form of the word or phrase uttered, to thesignified as the mental concept. It is important to note that, according to Saussure, the sign is completely arbitrary—i.e., there was no necessary connection between the sign and its meaning. This sets him apart from previous philosophers, such as Plato or the Scholastics, who thought that there must be some connection between a signifier and the object it signifies. In his Course in General Linguistics, Saussure credits the American linguist William Dwight Whitney (1827–1894) with insisting on the arbitrary nature of the sign. Saussure's insistence on the arbitrariness of the sign also has influenced later philosophers and theorists such as Jacques DerridaRoland Barthes, and Jean Baudrillard. Ferdinand de Saussure coined the term sémiologie while teaching his landmark "Course on General Linguistics" at the University of Geneva from 1906 to 1911. Saussure posited that no word is inherently meaningful. Rather a word is only a "signifier", i.e., the representation of something, and it must be combined in the brain with the "signified", or the thing itself, in order to form a meaning-imbued "sign". Saussure believed that dismantling signs was a real science, for in doing so we come to an empirical understanding of how humans synthesize physical stimuli into words and other abstract concepts.

mugen_edamame: (Default)
 sodomy initially defined as unnatural sex, sex not done for the sake of procreation
uk passed first sodomy law in 1538, so prior to that weird sex was taboo but not illegal
Sodomy Laws in Europe, brought with them to colonies
1980 last sodomy law struck down in us, Texas 
sodomy laws and ship w colonialism
19th century thinking changed (enlightenment, etc) hang on bible laws probably isn`t great
napoleonic code 1803 first legal system in west w out laws against homosexuality
consensual adult sex is ok, but they got finicky w definition of adults so that was how they got u

kertbenny. change the word of an issue, change how it's thought about
sodomite 8related to sin) -> homosexual 8SCIENCE)

the importance of labels
transsexuals have the rough end of the stick
categories, names  do not have an objective value
it's the propagation of ideas so they can't be ultimately true or ultimately false
going for the clinical aspect is quite important but also kinda mostly impossible

kertbenny's views on things reflected use of language
legal, clinical, inborn, not by choice
therefore, colder, harsher terms

gotta be quite thoughtful about words friend. 

words have biased slants in charged subjects
so proper language, clean cut 

ferdinand sasur

one of the 3 projects 8BL0
cover one of the icons 8ferdinand etc
think of a non-western LGBT historical icon

mugen_edamame: (Default)
Personality quiz

  1. Hello my darling hello my ragtime gaaaaaal
  2. Smile with your teeth not with an if
  3. Capitalism is like a drake; just a whole lot of dicking along
  4. Specialness shared between us is a complex story
  5. The short answer is that you are not
  6. The long answer is, what is the soul at the core of llaman?

And, as a result,

She broke into fourty two pieces and could not would not stop weeping.